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American Gems
 
Color   Lemon yellow to golden yellow to orange-brown
   
Gem Family   Citrine is a unique member of the quartz family.
   
Source   Most citrine is mined in Brazil, particularly the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The Serra and IraĆ¢ mines produce hundreds of kilos of rough every month.
   
Clarity   Usually free of eye-visible inclusions
   
Size Range   Citrine is generally more affordable than amethyst, its quartz cousin. Like all quartz gems, citrine is relatively plentiful and is available in a wide range of sizes and shapes, including very large sizes. For extra brilliance, many citrines are polished into Radial Cuts™, which have clever curved facets that focus light like lenses.
   
Shapes Available   Ovals, cushions, checkerboards, round brilliants, trillions, princess cuts, and opposed bars.
   
Enhancement   Much citrine starts its life as pale amethyst that is heated to remove the purple and develop its sunny yellow tones.
   
Lore & History   In ancient times, citrine was carried as a protection against snake venom and evil thoughts. Named from the French name for lemon, citron, most citrines have a light lemony color. Sunny and affordable, citrine blends especially well with the yellow gleam of polished gold.
   
Toughness & Hardness   The hardness of citrine is 7 on the Mohs scale and it is quite tough.
   
Care & Cleaning   Citrine is very durable but try to avoid exposure to heat. Clean with warm water, detergent, and a soft brush. Citrine can be put in ultrasonic or steam cleaners.
   
Price Range   $10 to $40 per carat
   
Special Characteristics   Sometimes you will hear citrine referred to as topaz quartz. Many yellow gems have been called topaz over the years. Since topaz is a separate mineral, the industry has ruled to eliminate this name as confusing and misleading. However, citrine is still considered an alternative to topaz as the birthstone for November.